Seven Wonders of the World, As humans evolved, civilisations developed and many began to build permanent structures. Many of these constructions became landmarks and came to be known as the ‘Wonders’. People from all over the world came, saw and marvelled at these feats of engineering and architecture.
The lists of Seven Wonders of The World have been changing from the ancient to the mediaeval times.
Seven Wonders of the World
The official declaration of the new Seven Wonders of the World was made on 7th July 2007 in Lisbon, Portugal. This list contains monuments and marvels, which includes :-
The Colosseum, Rome, Italy
The Colosseum of Rome was the greatest theatre of ancient times. Built in Rome by Flavian Roman emperors, the Colosseum is one of the Finest examples of Roman Architecture.
The Colosseum was built to entertain Roman Citizens. To celebrate the opening of the great amphitheatre, games were held for around 100 days. The colosseum proved to be the perfect place to stage all these sporting activities, more so because thousands of people could watch and cheer together here.
Lavish theatrical productions and tamed animal acts were some of the favourite sports and pastimes of the Romans. The infamous gladiator fight was the most popular sport. The gladiators were generally slaves, prisoners of war or criminals.
The colosseum was used for almost 500 years. It was then badly damaged by a series of earthquakes. The damaged Colosseum became a source of building material for various other buildings. Today, what we see of the Colosseum is just one-third of the great architecture.
The Great wall of China, Beijing, China
The Great Wall of China is one of the Wonders of the Modern World. The Great Wall is not a single wall but a series of walls built and rebuilt by different Chinese dynasties over a thousand years. The Great Wall stretches to about 6,560 KM from East to West of China.
The present Great Wall, which we are familiar with, was built by ‘Ming Dynasty’ (1368-1644). The Ming wall was bigger, longer and more imposing than the walls of the previous dynasties.
The Great Wall stands at a height of 7.5 M. The base of the wall is thick but it narrows down to 4.5 M at the top. Guard stations and watchtowers are placed at regular intervals along the length of the wall.
The Chinese troops and workers used smoke by day to send messages along the length of The Great Wall. there were different types of signals for different situations. For instance, a one-column smoke indicated an impending attack by a force of less than 500 men and a two-column smoke indicated that there was a force of less than 3,000 men.
Chichén Itzá, Yucatán, Mexico
Chichen Itza is a pre-Columbian Maya city located in the Yucatán Peninsula, in the present-day state of Yucatan, Mexico. It was a centre of Maya civilization and one of the largest cities in the Maya world.
Chichen Itza was a major hub of political, economic, and religious activity for the Maya civilization. The city’s most famous structure is the Temple of Kukulkan, also known as the “El Castillo,” a pyramid that stands approximately 75 feet tall.
The temple is notable for its precise alignment with the movements of the sun, and the way its shadow falls on the pyramid in such a way as to create the illusion of a snake crawling down the steps. Chichen Itza is now a popular tourist destination, and it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.
Machu Picchu, Peru
Machu Picchu is an ancient Inca city built on top of a high mountain. It lies hidden and completely invisible from below. It is located in the Urubamba Valley, in the Andes Mountains of Peru. The Valley was known as the Sacred Valley of Incas.
The name Machu Picchu, in Quechua language means ‘Old Mountain’. Machu Picchu was built between A.D. 1460 and 1470 by Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, an Inca ruler. Machu Picchu was most likely a royal estate and a religious retreat.
The city of Machu Picchu was surrounded by high mountain peaks and rushing waters. It was divided into the urban sector and the agricultural sector. The Urban Sector had plazas, platforms, and about 200 buildings.
The existence of Machu Picchu was not known to many outside of the Incas. The city declined after A.D. 1527, when 50 per cent of the population was killed by smallpox.
Taj Mahal, Agra, India
One of the Seven Wonders of the World, the Taj Mahal, is a mausoleum built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. Constructed entirely of pure white marble, the mausoleum is a masterpiece of Mughal Architecture.
The Taj Mahal is located in Agra, India. The building complex comprises many structures and is bounded on three sides by a red sandstone wall. The River Yamuna flows on the open side. The five principal elements of the complex are the main gateway, garden, mosque, jawab (building mirroring the mosque) and mausoleum (including its four minarets.)
The Construction of the Taj Mahal began in A.D. 1632, a year after the death of Queen Mumtaz Mahal. Three types of stones were used in the construction of the Taj Mahal- semi-precious, rare and precious stones, yellow sandstone and white marble.
Christ, the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The statue of Christ is 39.6 M (130 feet tall) and it weighs 700 tonnes. It is located at the peak of the 700 M (2,296 feet) Corcovado mountain in the Tijuca Forest National Park overlooking the city. The span from fingertip to fingertip is 28 M.
The Statue was designed by Heitor da Silva Costa and carved by French sculptor Paul Landowski. It took five years to construct the statue.
The top of the statue offers amazing views of Rio de Janeiro, the bay, Sugarloaf Mountain and Copacabana and Ipanema Beaches. At the base of the statue there is a chapel for 150 people.
Many different reforms have been made up till now. Lights have been added up till now. Panoramic elevator, and motorised staircase can also be seen now to ease the difficulty faced elderly people. It used to be very tiring to reach the top after ascending 220 steps.
This vast and unique city is carved into a sheer rock face by Nabataeans, an industrious Arab group who settled in southern Jordan more than 2,000 years ago.
This half built, half carved Nabataean caravan city is surrounded by mountains riddled with passengers and gorges. It is situated between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea. It is said to be an important crossroad between Arabia, Egypt and Syria-Phoenicia. It is one of the most majestic and imposing ancient sites that is still existing today.
From the inscriptions, some archaeologists came to the conclusion that the tombs were constructed by Nabatean sculptors and not by imported slaves or labourers. This rock-carved rose-red city enchants the visitors from all parts of the Globe.
In 1985, Petra was designated a World Heritage site. It is one of Jordan’s most valuable Treasures and a great tourist attraction as well as one of Seven Wonders of the World.