Surya Namaskar: History, Benefits, Poses and All


What is Surya Namaskar?

Surya Namaskar, often translated as “Sun Salutation,” is a revered yogic practice that holds profound significance in the world of yoga and wellness. A dynamic sequence of postures, Surya Namaskar is a holistic exercise that combines physical, mental, and spiritual elements. As the name suggests, it is a salutation to the sun, embodying gratitude and harnessing the sun’s energy for holistic well-being.

History of Surya Namaskar

To truly appreciate the essence of Surya Namaskar, delving into its historical roots is essential. Tracing its origins to ancient India, this practice finds its mention in various ancient texts, including the Vedas and Upanishads. The reverence for the sun in Hindu culture, representing vitality and life force, is encapsulated in the ritualistic practice of Surya Namaskar.

How to Do Surya Namaskar

Embarking on the journey of Surya Namaskar requires a step-by-step understanding of the postures involved. The sequence typically involves a set of twelve gracefully linked postures, synchronized with the breath. A proper alignment of the body and focused awareness are key aspects of mastering each posture. In this section, we will unravel the intricacies of executing Surya Namaskar with precision.

  1. Starting Position (Pranamasana):
    • Stand at the front of your mat with feet together.
    • Bring palms together in a prayer pose at the heart center.
  2. Raised Arms Pose (Hasta Uttanasana):
    • Inhale, lift arms overhead, arching back slightly.
    • Engage core muscles and extend the spine.
  3. Hand to Foot Pose (Padahastasana):
    • Exhale, bend forward, bringing hands to touch the toes.
    • Keep the spine straight and head down.
  4. Equestrian Pose (Ashwa Sanchalanasana):
    • Inhale, step the right leg back into a lunge.
    • Keep the left knee bent, chest forward, and gaze up.
  5. Stick Pose (Dandasana):
    • Inhale, bring the left leg back, entering a plank position.
    • Keep the body in a straight line from head to heels.
  6. Salute with Eight Parts (Ashtanga Namaskara):
    • Exhale, lower knees, chest, and forehead to the ground.
    • Keep the hips slightly lifted.
  7. Cobra Pose (Bhujangasana):
    • Inhale, lift the chest, arching the back.
    • Keep the elbows slightly bent.
  8. Mountain Pose (Parvatasana):
    • Exhale, lift hips into an inverted V-shape.
    • Keep heels grounded and head between arms.
  9. Equestrian Pose – Other Leg:
    • Inhale, step the left leg back into a lunge.
    • Repeat the equestrian pose with the opposite leg.
  10. Hand to Foot Pose – Other Leg:
    • Exhale, bring the right foot next to the left.
    • Forward bend, hands touching the toes.
  11. Raised Arms Pose – Other Leg:
    • Inhale, rise with arms overhead, arching back.
    • Engage core muscles and extend the spine.
  12. Finishing Position (Pranamasana):
    • Exhale, bring palms together at the heart.
    • Stand in the initial position, expressing gratitude.


  • Breath Awareness:
    • Coordinate each movement with breath.
  • Smooth Transitions:
    • Flow seamlessly from one pose to the next.
  • Focus and Intention:
    • Maintain awareness and set positive intentions during the practice.

Practice Surya Namaskar regularly to experience its holistic benefits for the body, mind, and spirit.

Benefits of Surya Namaskar

The multifaceted benefits of Surya Namaskar extend beyond the physical realm, encompassing mental and spiritual dimensions. From enhancing flexibility and strength to promoting mental clarity and emotional balance, Surya Namaskar is hailed as a complete workout for the body and mind. This section will explore the myriad advantages that practitioners can reap from incorporating Surya Namaskar into their daily routine.

1. Physical Fitness and Flexibility

Surya Namaskar engages multiple muscle groups, promoting overall physical fitness. The sequence involves a combination of forward and backward bends, enhancing flexibility in the spine, hamstrings, and shoulders. Regular practice helps tone the muscles, improve posture, and increase joint mobility.

2. Cardiovascular Health

The rhythmic and dynamic nature of Surya Namaskar acts as a cardiovascular workout. The continuous flow of postures elevates the heart rate, promoting circulation and cardiovascular health. This aspect makes it an excellent warm-up routine or a standalone cardiovascular exercise when performed at a faster pace.

3. Weight Management

For those aiming to manage or lose weight, Surya Namaskar can be an effective tool. The combination of asanas stimulates the digestive system, aiding in better metabolism and calorie burn. Regular practice contributes to weight management by addressing both physical activity and overall well-being.

4. Enhanced Respiratory Function

The synchronization of breath with movement in Surya Namaskar enhances respiratory function. Deep and controlled breathing patterns expand lung capacity, promoting efficient oxygen exchange. This not only improves respiratory health but also fosters a sense of calm and focus.

5. Stress Reduction and Mental Clarity

The meditative aspect of Surya Namaskar, coupled with mindful breathing, helps reduce stress and anxiety. The rhythmic flow induces a state of moving meditation, calming the mind and promoting mental clarity. Regular practice contributes to improved concentration and a more balanced emotional state.

6. Balanced Endocrine System

The specific postures in Surya Namaskar stimulate various endocrine glands, including the thyroid and adrenal glands. This stimulation helps balance hormonal levels, contributing to better overall health. It is particularly beneficial for those dealing with hormonal imbalances.

7. Detoxification

The dynamic movements and controlled breathing in Surya Namaskar aid in detoxifying the body. Sweating during the practice eliminates toxins, and the stretching and compressing of muscles enhance lymphatic drainage. This detoxification process rejuvenates the body at a cellular level.

8. Improved Digestion

The forward bends in Surya Namaskar massage and stimulate the abdominal organs, supporting digestive health. This can alleviate issues such as constipation and indigestion. The overall activation of the digestive system ensures efficient nutrient absorption.

9. Spiritual Connection

Rooted in ancient tradition, Surya Namaskar is not merely a physical exercise but a spiritual practice. The salute to the sun symbolizes a connection with a higher source of energy. Practitioners often describe a sense of spiritual awakening and heightened awareness.

10. Enhanced Posture and Body Awareness

Regular practice of Surya Namaskar promotes body awareness and mindful movement. This heightened awareness translates into improved posture and alignment in daily activities. The conscious engagement of muscles contributes to better overall body mechanics.

How Many Positions Are There in Surya Namaskar?

At the heart of Surya Namaskar lies its structured sequence of postures. Unraveling the specific positions within this sequence is crucial for a comprehensive grasp of the practice. In this section, we will break down the twelve positions, exploring the nuances of each posture and its contribution to the holistic benefits of Surya Namaskar.

What Are the 12 Names of Surya Namaskar?

Each posture within the sequence of Surya Namaskar is accompanied by a specific mantra or name. These names are not merely labels; they carry profound symbolic meanings and connect the practitioner with deeper spiritual dimensions. Understanding the significance of each name adds a spiritual layer to the practice, enriching the overall experience.

1. Pranamasana (Prayer Pose):

The journey begins with a prayerful stance, palms joined at the heart center. The practitioner expresses gratitude for the new day and acknowledges the divine energy within.

2. Hasta Uttanasana (Raised Arms Pose):

As the arms rise overhead, the practitioner welcomes the sun’s energy, stretching the entire body and invoking the mantra associated with this posture.

3. Padahastasana (Hand to Foot Pose):

Bending forward to touch the toes, the practitioner activates the mantra, focusing on grounding energy and surrendering any tension.

4. Ashwa Sanchalanasana (Equestrian Pose):

Stepping one foot back into a lunge, the practitioner embodies the grace and strength of a horse. The associated mantra emphasizes the qualities of courage and vitality.

5. Dandasana (Stick Pose):

Moving into a straight-legged plank position, the practitioner engages the core and invokes the mantra associated with discipline and strength.

6. Ashtanga Namaskara (Salute with Eight Parts):

Lowering the body to the ground with eight points touching, this posture signifies surrender and humility. The mantra resonates with the idea of offering oneself to the greater cosmic energy.

7. Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose):

Arching the back and lifting the chest in Cobra Pose, the practitioner awakens the energy of the serpent, symbolizing transformation and renewal.

8. Parvatasana (Mountain Pose):

Lifting the hips into an inverted V-shape, the practitioner channels the stability and majesty of a mountain. The associated mantra reflects steadfastness and resilience.

9. Ashwa Sanchalanasana (Equestrian Pose – Other Leg):

Repeating the equestrian pose with the opposite leg, the practitioner maintains balance and invokes the mantra for courage and vitality.

10. Padahastasana (Hand to Foot Pose – Other Leg):

Returning to the forward bend, the practitioner honors the mantra associated with grounding energy and surrender.

11. Hasta Uttanasana (Raised Arms Pose – Other Leg):

Rising back up with arms extended, the practitioner once again welcomes the sun’s energy, embodying the mantra for vitality and positivity.

12. Pranamasana (Prayer Pose):

The sequence concludes as it began, with a prayerful stance. The practitioner expresses gratitude for the practice and carries the energy of Surya Namaskar into daily life.

Exploring the Fluidity of Surya Namaskar

The beauty of Surya Namaskar lies in its seamless flow—a rhythmic dance that harmonizes breath, movement, and spiritual intent. Navigating through the sequence with grace and mindfulness is an art that transforms this yogic practice into a moving meditation. This section will delve into the fluidity and grace inherent in the execution of Surya Namaskar.

The Evolving Landscape of Surya Namaskar

As the practice of Surya Namaskar transcends cultural and geographical boundaries, contemporary variations and adaptations have emerged. Modern yoga practitioners and enthusiasts have infused creativity and innovation into this ancient practice, giving rise to diverse interpretations. This section will explore the evolving landscape of Surya Namaskar in the contemporary world.

In Conclusion: Embracing the Sun Within

In conclusion, Surya Namaskar emerges not merely as a physical exercise routine but as a profound spiritual journey. Its rich history, coupled with the intricacies of its postures and the array of benefits it bestows, makes it a holistic practice that transcends the boundaries of conventional fitness routines. As we delve into the heart of Surya Namaskar, we uncover not just a series of physical movements but a transformative ritual that connects us with the very source of life—the sun. Embracing the sun within, we embark on a journey of self-discovery and well-being through the sacred art of Surya Namaskar.


How many calories does Surya Namaskar burn?

The number of calories burned during Surya Namaskar depends on factors like intensity, speed, and individual body weight.
On average, one round of Surya Namaskar can burn around 13-17 calories.
With increased intensity and more rounds, the calorie burn can be higher, making it an effective workout.

Can we do Surya Namaskar during periods?

Yes, Surya Namaskar can be practiced during periods, but it’s essential to listen to your body.
Some women find it beneficial for easing menstrual discomfort, while others may prefer gentler yoga poses.
Modify the practice as needed, avoiding strenuous poses and focusing on gentle stretches.

Can Surya Namaskar reduce weight?

Yes, Surya Namaskar can contribute to weight loss when combined with a balanced diet and regular practice.
It boosts metabolism, improves flexibility, and engages multiple muscle groups, aiding in calorie burning.
Consistent practice, along with a healthy lifestyle, can support weight management.

Is Surya Namaskar good for weight loss?

Yes, Surya Namaskar is considered beneficial for weight loss.
It provides a full-body workout, promoting fat loss and muscle toning.
The dynamic nature of the practice enhances cardiovascular health, contributing to overall fitness.
Regular practice, along with dietary modifications, can support weight loss goals.

Suhina Bisaria
Suhina Bisaria
Suhina Bisaria is a journalist with a marketing degree. She is keen to learn and write about everything people might be interested in. She has worked as a copy editor in Delhi with prestigious news organisations. Apart from keeping track of all things newsworthy and delivering error-free content to users, she has also tried her hand at writing human interest features, Entertainment stories, health and lifestyle stories, celebrity news and viral news.

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